All About Language Proficiency and Language Fluency

At what point do you “know” a language?

It’s a loaded question, but maybe a necessary one. After two years of high school Spanish, for example, you probably wouldn’t advertise on your resume that you speak Spanish, since you likely can’t handle any basic communication tasks.

But what about my Cuban tour guide in France? She spoke confidently to a bus full of people in broken English. As a native Spanish speaker, she made a lot of grammatical and pronunciation mistakes in English. A lot of mistakes. Is she then not “allowed” to claim English as a language, even though she’s able to communicate her main ideas and literally work in the language?

For skill-based activities, like language learning and dancing, it’s too simplistic to judge ability as “pass” or “fail.”
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Language Proficiency

We simply have a hard time figuring out when someone can claim a foreign language as one they speak. Linguists and language educators have known about this problem for years, which is why they have come up with the idea of language proficiency.

The term “proficiency” implies that we’re dealing with skills, because language ability is just that–a skill. In many ways, it’s like dancing, playing the guitar, riding a bike, or driving a car.

When it comes to skills, there’s a spectrum of abilities. My five-year-old son can ride a bicycle, but he’s a little wobbly, he goes slow, he has difficulty turning, and he doesn’t brake very well. And he needs a push to get going. But the other night he pedaled his bike three times around the pond in our neighborhood and didn’t fall once. He’s not going to win the Tour de France, but he’s proven that he can ride a bike. I’d have a hard time telling him that he can’t, just because he’s not great at it yet.

It’s like that with language ability too. Different language organizations around the world have developed scales to help identify a person’s foreign language ability. The scales might vary in the details, but they all basically want to identify whether a person is a beginner in the language, an expert, or somewhere in between.

In the US, an influential proficiency measure is the Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR) scale, developed by the US State Department. It identifies five levels of language proficiency:

  • Level 1 – Elementary – Can fulfill the basic needs in a language, such as ordering meals, asking time, and asking for directions.
  • Level 2 – Limited Working Proficiency – Can fulfill routine social demands, such as small talk about one’s self, one’s family, and current events.
  • Level 3 – Professional Working Proficiency – Can discuss a variety of topics with ease and almost completely understand what others are saying.
  • Level 4 – Full Professional Proficiency – Can participate in all manners of conversations with ease and only rarely makes grammatical mistakes.
  • Level 5 – Native or Bilingual Proficiency – Can use the language the way an educated native speaker of the language would.

Additionally, a person in between levels might be at a 1+, 2+, 3+, or 4+ level.

European countries use something called the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. It’s the same idea, but the levels are broken down as:

  • A1 – Breakthrough or Beginner
  • A2 – Waystage or Elementary
  • B1 – Threshold or Intermediate
  • B2 – Vantage or Upper Intermediate
  • C1 – Effective Operational Proficiency or Advanced
  • C2 – Mastery or Proficiency

A few things to notice.

First, proficiency levels are about what you can do in the language, not what you can’t. This is a minor, but important, distinction.

Second, C2 is the equivalent of Level 4. Those are considered “mastery” of a foreign language, and frankly, it is very rare to see someone achieve that level. But even at both those levels, you’re still expected to make a few grammatical or pronunciation mistakes. So think of how many mistakes you’re expected to make at the lower levels of proficiency. As I’ve said before, no one is expecting you to be perfect.

Third, the ILR breaks down levels further into different skills: reading, listening, speaking, and writing. You can be a Level 3 in reading and listening and a Level 2 in speaking (which I have tested as in Arabic). The European scale scores you by your weakest skill level, so if you’re a B1 in speaking and a C1 in reading, then your global language skills are rated as B1. I see merits to both approaches.

Fourth, it becomes increasingly difficult to go from one level to the next. It is somewhat straightforward  to learn enough language to order a meal at a restaurant and ask for directions. It is exponentially more difficult to be able to make small talk about anything. When I was in language school, my instructors taught me that proficiency levels were like an inverse pyramid:

The inverse pyramid of language proficiency.

The pyramid illustrates that the amount of knowledge you need to go from one level to the next grows as you go along.

What about fluency?

So what does it mean to be fluent in a language?

“Fluent” is an imprecise term. I’ve heard people claim that you don’t reach fluency until you’re an absolute expert. The IIR scale even uses the terms “fluent” to describe levels 4 and 5–i.e., absolute mastery.

I think we can probably drop that down a notch, though. In my professional opinion, you are fluent at Level 3 (or C1). And I’d even go so far as to say that someone at Level 2+ (B2) could claim fluency.

Here’s why. Think about what the word “fluent” implies: You are able to participate in a conversation without struggling. You understand what the other person is saying, and you’re able to formulate an appropriate, understandable response back.

Here’s what it doesn’t mean:

  • Being flawless
  • Talking like a native
  • Talking without an accent; (I’d say that Henry Kissinger was fluent in English, despite his thick accent.)

Why does any of this matter?

Why are we even talking about this? Well, for me, I find the concept of levels encouraging.

Because the fact is, when you’re dealing with native speakers and actually trying to communicate in their language, they’re not always going to be patient and understanding. So it’s very easy to become discouraged. When I lived in Germany, I would spend several hours a week studying and practicing German, only to go to the grocery store and get completely demoralized when the cashier couldn’t understand me. Then I’d drive home and become irritated that I couldn’t get the gist of some news broadcasts or television shows.

When we’re out in the world speaking, we tend to think of our foreign language skills as pass/fail. But the levels let us know more precisely where our skill level is at. Just like my son riding wobbly on his bicycle around the pond, we can take pride in what we’ve accomplished while still acknowledging how far we have yet to go.

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  • JJ

    Being a beginner, proficient or fluent of a language is a subject by itself as an individual. In real world situations, being an effective, a competent communicator or great speaker are pre-requisite of real world wants and demands!

  • Hitrizie

    thanks for posting this language proficiency level article Ron:-) Now, I understand what does it mean:-) This knowledge means a lot to me:-)

    • Ron G.

      No problem! Glad you liked it!

  • Kelly Walborn Jones

    How does one go about getting tested and rated? Or is it self-identified?

    • Ron G.

      Hi Kelly! I think in some areas, it’s fine (and probably appropriate) to self-identify. But in some industries, such as translation or even customer service, you may need to provide more specific credentials. There are tests you can take:

      – Most popular languages have exams specific to their language. You can look up “DELE” for Spanish, “Goethe Exams” for German, and so on. The Goethe exams, for example, test you from A1 to C2.
      – ACTFL has proficiency exams.
      – Several organizations offer “Oral Profiency Interviews” or OPIs. You can Google for more details, but commonly you’ll take this test when referred by a specific company or organization.
      – The US military uses something called the Defense Language Proficiency Test (DLPT).

      Which language are you thinking about getting tested in?

  • Roman Shinkarenko

    Benny Lewis indentifies fluency as B2. In this he agrees with you.

    • Ron G.

      I think that’s where I first got that idea. I had been leaning toward B1, but that seemed a little low. And C1 seemed a little high. I saw Benny’s thoughts and they seemed about right. To verify, I went to the CEFRL guidelines to see what they said, and the word “fluency” was first starting to be used in the B2 descriptions. At that point, seemed like a running theme. (Now I’m shying away from “fluent” because it’s such a loaded word.)

  • Daniel

    Great post. I have to say I feel a little more confident in my language achievements now that I understand the US system.

    • Ron G.

      Good! I think a lot of talented language learners tend to underestimate their abilities because the talented ones are the ones who know how much they don’t know. With Arabic, I was a C1 in reading and listening, but at most a B2 in speaking and who knows? in writing. Of course I’d love it if all my skills were equal, the way the CEFR mandates, but I also know that the level I reached let me work as a translator and was a proficiency level that very few non-Arabs reached. I’m happy about accomplishments, but I also recognize that I need more work. I’m hoping that more people can realize how far they’ve come in their own studies.

  • Arben Bushgjoka

    How long will it take to finish b2 level?

    • Ron G.

      Depends on how different the language is from your native language and how much time you spend every day. Most people can reach that level within 2 years, but sooner if they really push.

    • Michael Mixalis

      Ron is right, it primarily depends on how different your native language is from the language you want to learn, However, sometimes a language may seem strange and difficult whereas in fact it’s not ! For example, to most people Hindi seems impossible to learn. However, Hindi is an Indo-european language and all Indo-european languages derive from Sanskrit. (Example: द्वार (duar) in Hindi = door (in English) = Tür (in German) = θύρα (dira) in Greek, درب (dar) in Persian, dörr in Swedish, etc. As you can see from the above example this word has the same root! (The Germans cannot pronounce the Anglo-saxon “d” and instead they pronounce it “t”. The double “oo” becomes umlauted “ü”, and the “r” is everywhere the same. The same happens with approximately 90% of the words! But people think it is different because it is written in a different alphabet. For example, English, German, Dutch, Danish, Swedish, and Russian people think that is Greek is Greek to them :). However, they already know 90% of the Greek language ! The only different is in pronunciation and in the Alphabet (how the language is written). But if you write the Greek words with Latin alphabet, you will be greatly surprised !!! So if you can recognize the Greek words “problema” (πρόβλημα), “muter” (μήτηρ), “scholeo” (σχολείο), “anarchya” (αναρχία), “Abyssos” (ἄβυσσος), “pater” (πατήρ), you can actually learn Greek in less than a month :). Same with Hindi, same with Persian ! Same with Russian ! Enjoy and learn languages ! It is fun :)

  • NicoJames

    There is misinformation in this post. Firstly, the author says few people achieve C2 level proficiency. That isn’t true. Many people, particularly in Europe where English and other foreign languages are taught from a young age, reach that level. Not so many actually sit an official C2 exam, but that does’t mean they can’t speak and write the language just as well, if not better, than a native speaker. In fact many people can speak English without a noticeable foreign accent, particularly Scandanavians. Vice versa applies too. I know a number of native English speakers, and a Russian and an Armenian, who are totally fluent in German. They are so proficient they all teach German in Germany.

    Secondly, the statement “The European scale scores you by your weakest skill level, so if you’re a
    B1 in speaking and a C1 in reading, then your global language skills
    are rated as B1” is incorrect.
    European exams test you on listening, written language skills (reading & writing) and oral skills. You need a minimum of 60% in the combined listening and written section, and a minimum of 60% in the oral section in order to pass the exam. If you don’t pass both sections, you simply don’t achieve the level at all.

    I teach English and I have the C1 level German exam. I speak it fluently but certainly not perfectly, and I think my grammar is quite poor. However, even when I was studying for B1 level people often said I spoke well, even though I didn’t feel as if I did. I tend to speak it confidently and not worry too much about making mistakes. If you aim at communicating, rather than speaking perfectly, people often overlook or don’t even notice your mistakes. Unfortunately when writing, the mistakes are often much more noticeable!

    • Arrowhead

      Many young people in Europe have B2 level, so they can easily pass FCE and have a decent conversation with a native, but it’s not even close to proficiency. The real C2 is indeed rare and Cambridge CPE stats reflect that as well.

      I agree that some people manage to reach the native-like level, but even in Germany or Scandinavia, the majority are B2 or below.

  • Dynam

    Well, this seems like a good thing for many people who wanted to become fluent in a certain language which might be a lot beneficial on their part especially if this could help them in taking up more opportunities that will come on their way.

  • fairyhedgehog

    I just wanted to know what the levels C1 and B2 mean, but this gave me so much more. I think I’m at about A1 in Spanish and Italian, but it’s harder to know what I can claim in French these days.

    It was an interesting read!

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  • Sabina Orhean

    I’m a little bit perplexed by the part where the article suggests that C2 is a difficult level to reach. I’m italian, I’m 19 and I’ve achieved, last year, a C1 level by only doing an FCE exam. I have to admit that doing a CAE makes it more difficult to reach a C2 level, because of the complexity of the Use of English tasks and the main topics they deal about. Today I’ve had my CAE and I was impressed by the extreme complexity of the language used in the Reading part. It dealt about philosophical, scientific, artistic and economic topics and I found it quite difficult, but it is also true that when you live in a foreign country which native’s language is not English you tend to exercise more and to read a lot more, to hear a lot more and to start being interested in doing whatever you can to improve your level. I, for example, can’t speak in English all day because I scarcely do it during oral literature exams with my teacher…so I spend my time reading books, listening to music (and that, I can assure you, helps a lot!), watching Tv series, BBC and CNN. Overall, I can deal with a more complex language than the one that I’m able to speak.

    I don’t think that we’re not able to achieve a C2 level, also because, as said by many who have written in the comment section, we start learning English since we’re in primary school. (For instance, I’ve been studying English since I was 6 years old.) The main problem for us is that we have foreign accents and pronunciation can only be completely improved by talking full time in a complete english environment. The only way for reaching a C2 level, in my opinion, is to live at least 2-3 months in a native english speaking country. That’s why I’m trying to find some time apart from study to go there and hope I’ll be able to speak 100% as a native speaker. If we study enough and we study hard I fully believe we can reach a C2 level, but there is the need to improve speaking skills. That is my main problem. And I think that it is the main problem with learning other languages: you don’t get the chance to exercise speaking as an english native would do, as well as an english native couldn’t speak Italian as I can.

    Another big problem is that, as students, we have a lot of dead lines, a lot of school exams, uni application, leisure time activities, and also work for those who are already working. Finding time to exercise English becomes more and more difficult while doing all these things. It makes me sad because I believe in the power of communication and languages and I’d like
    to have a perfect proficiency level. But at the moment, I can speak 3 languages, and I also find it extremely tricky to decide which to use without mixing them all together while thinking.
    Another problem of learning languages. I hope I will reach a C2 level in the future, and I believe that we are perfectly abe to reach it. The main reason why it takes time it’s time itself actually…

  • Ann

    I took 4 years of Russian many years ago and was a student assistant in that class all four years. Where is the best place online to re-learn my language. Obviously, I want to pay as little as possible. Can anyone direct me to the right sites. My target is translation and I wish to pass the FCE testing. Thanks for input.

    • Simisola Omotoso

      I’m currently using LingQ, which is somewhat helpful to me. It gives you foreign text and organized lessons into categories. It even gives you the option to learn from tutors. Previously, I used Duolingo which gives you a game-like experience. Pick whichever you’d like to try.

  • Soul of Leisure Blog

    I totally agree. Even though I am 3/3/2+ in Arabic and am labeled professional level Fluency, I often feel inadequate in the language. I practice 5 areas every single day with additional grammar practice.